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Qadiriyya



The Qadiriyya (Arabic: القادريه, Persian:قادریه, also transliterated Qadri, Qadriya, Kadri, Elkadri, Elkadry, Aladray, Adray, Kadray, Qadiri or Qadri), are members of the Qadiri Sufi order (tariqa). This derives its name from Abdul-Qadir Gilani (1077–1166 CE, also transliterated as "Jilani" etc.) who was a native of the Iranian province of Gilan. The order relies strongly upon adherence to the fundamentals of Islam.

The order, with its many offshoots, is widespread, particularly in the Arabic-speaking world, and can also be found in Afghanistan, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Turkey, the Balkans, China,Gladney, Dru. "Muslim Tombs and Ethnic Folklore: Charters for Hui Identity" Journal of Asian Studies, August 1987, Vol. 46 (3): 495-532; pp. 48-49 in the PDF file. East and West Africa.Abun-Nasr, Jamil M. "The Special Sufi Paths (Taqiras)." Muslim Communities of Grace: The Sufi Brotherhoods in Islamic Religious Life. New York: Columbia UP, 2007. 86-96. There are small groups in Europe and the Americas: the famous travelers and writers Richard Francis Burton and Isabelle Eberhardt belonged to the Qadiri order.

History

The founder of the Qadiriyya, Abdul-Qadir Gilani, was a respected Hanbalite scholar and preacher. Having been a pupil at the school (madrasa) of Abu Sa'id al-Mubarak Mukharrami he became leader of this school after Mukharrami's death in 1119 CE. Being the new shaykh, he and his large family lived comfortably in the madrasa until his death in 1166, when his son, Abdul-Wahhab, succeeded his father as sheikh. At the time the Sufi tradition of Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi was gaining prominence after the caliph al-Nasir came to power in 1180 and patronised al-Suhrawardi. Gilani's son, Abdul al-Razzaq, published a hagiography of his father, emphasising his reputation as founder of a distinct and prestigious Sufi order.

The Qadiriyya flourished, surviving the Mongolian conquest of Baghdad in 1258, and remained an influential Sunni institution. After the fall of the 'Abbasid caliphate the legend of Gilani was further spread by a text entitled The Joy of the Secrets in Abdul-Qadirs Mysterious Deeds (Bahjat al-asrar fi ba'd manaqib 'Abd al-Qadir) attributed to Nur al-Din Ali al-Shattanufi, who depicted Gilani is the ultimate channel of divine grace and helped the Qadiri order to spread far beyond the region of Baghdad.

By the end of the fifteenth century the Qadiriyya had distinct branches and had spread to Morocco, Spain, Turkey, India, Ethiopia, Somalia, and present-day Mali. Established Sufi sheikhs often adopted the Qadiriyya tradition without abandoning leadership of their local communities. During the Safavid rule of Baghdad, from 1508 to 1534, the shaykh of the Qadiriyya was appointed chief Sufi of Baghdad and the surrounding lands. Shortly after the Ottoman Turks conquered Baghdad in 1534, Suleiman the Magnificent commissioned a dome to be built on the tomb of Gilani, establishing the Qadiriyya as his main allies in Iraq.

Koja Abdul Alla, a sheikh of the Qadiriyya and a descendant of Muhammed, is reported to have entered China in 1674 and traveled the country preaching until his death in 1689. One of Abdul Alla's students, Qi Jingyi Hilal al-Din, is said to have permanently rooted Qadiri Sufism in China. He was buried in Linxia City, which became the center of the Qadiriyya in China. By the seventeenth century, the Qadiriyya had reached Ottoman-occupied areas of Europe.

There were also many Qadiri sheikhs in Kerala, including Moula al-Bokhari (Kannur), Syed Abd al-Rahman Aidrusi (Ponnani), Syed Qutb Alavi Manburami, Sheikh Abu-Bakr Madavuri, Sheikh Abu-Bakr Aluva and Sheikh Zain-ud-din Makhdum Ponnani.

Features

* Qadiri leadership is not centralised. Each centre of Qadiri thought is free to adopt its own interpretations and practices.
  • The symbol of the order is the rose. A rose of green and white cloth, with a six-pointed star in the middle, is traditionally worn in the cap of Qadiri dervishes. Robes of black felt are also customary.John Porter Brown, The Dervishes, OUP, 1927, pp.100-110
  • Teachings emphasise the struggle against the desires of the ego. Gilani described it as "the greater struggle" (jihad) This has two stages; first against deeds forbidden by religious law and second against fundamental vices such as greed, vanity, and fear. A true seeker of God should overcome all desires other than wishing to be taken into God's custody.
  • Though the sunna is the ultimate source of religious guidance, the wali (saints) are God's chosen spiritual guides for the people. Such local Sufi saints command considerable local reverence. Sufi masters are not necessarily divinely-inspired but they are still responsible for guiding their disciples.
  • Names of God are prescribed as wazifas (mantras) for repetition by initiates (dhikr). Formerly several hundred thousand repetitions were required, and obligatory for those who hold the office of sheikh.John Porter Brown, The Dervishes, OUP, 1927, pp.100-110
  • Any person over the age of eighteen may be initiated. They may be asked to live in the order's commune (tekke) and to recount their dreams to their sheikh.John Porter Brown, The Dervishes, OUP, 1927, pp.100-110
  • Hzt SULTHAN SHAH Sayed Muhammed Badshah

    Hazrat Khwaja Shaikh Mohammad Badshah Qadri-ul-Chishti Yamani Raichuri Rahmatullan Alayh (1903 (1324 Hijri) – 1978), was a Sufi saint of the Chisti order in India, known commonly as Badshah Quadri or Badesha Qadri, who preached universal brotherhood and peace.

    Badesha Quadri was born in Raichur, Karnataka, India, during Bakrid on 10th day of Dhul Hijja, on a Friday, to a sayyid family which originally came from Yemen. His family trace their descent from Hasan ibn Ali, the first grandson of Muhammad

    At an early age, Badesha Quadri became a disciple of his paternal uncle Shah Nabi Mohuiddeen Quadri, of the Chisti order, who was then a renowned Chisti elder. He later became a disciple of Karimullah Shah Qadri. Before Karimullah died, he passed the role of Pir, the leadership of the Qadiriyyah and Chishti traditions, to Badesha Quadri.

    Badesha Quadri is entombed in Halkatta Shareef outside of Wadi in the Gulbarga District of Karnataka. His work is continued there by his son and successor Mohammed Ibrahim Shah Qadri (Ibrahim Shah Khaderi ) There is an annual festival or urs for Badesha Quadri and thousands of his followers travel to Halkatta Shareef for it. The urs marks the anniversary of the saint’s death. The term urs literally means wedding with the divine.

    Badshah khadri is one of the most greatest person and we all ahle silsila-e-khadriya is faith on him. Hazrat Peer Adil Bijapur Rahmathullah is also the peer of the silsila after hazrat Badshah khadri rahmath ullah Hazrat Peer Younus Ali shah khadri al chisti al ifteqari charage peer adil is one of the saint of the silsila who is present alive and give the true massage of allah and mohammed to all people by the grace of god.

    Texts

    There are several texts important to the Qadiriyya;
  • Futuh al-Ghayb (Revelations from the Invisible World) - Seventy-eight of Gilani's essays (maqalat, singular: maqala) compiled by his son, Abdul al-Razzaq Gilani. These pieces tend to be short statements regarding Islamic doctrines and Sufi belief.
  • Fath al-Rabbani wa al-Fayd al-Rahmani (Revelation from the Lord and the Outflow of His Mercy) - Sermons Gilani delivered during sixty-two sessions held in his madrasa, most likely recorded by his disciples.
  • al-Ghunya li Lalibi Tariq al-Haqq (Indispensables for the Seekers of the Path of Truth) - the largest of Gilani's three known books, separated into five parts, each dealing with a different branch of Sufi learning; jurisprudence (fiqh), tenets of the faith (aqa'id), preaching (majalis wa'z), work or "the work" (a'mal) and Sufism (tasawwuf'') itself generally.

    Spiritual Chain

    The chain of spiritual masters (silsila) of the Qadiriyya is given thus;
  • Muhammad
    Another version, extending beyond Gilani's time, is as follows;
  • Muhammad
    ===Qadiriyya wa Naqshbandiyya=== An amalgamated order of Qadiriyya and Naqshbandiyya formed in south-east Asia.

    References

    ==See also==

    Translation: ar » الطريقة القادرية Translation: ca » Qadiriyya Translation: de » Qadiriyya Translation: fa » قادریه Translation: fr » Qadiriyya Translation: id » Qodiriyah Translation: it » Qadiriyya Translation: he » קאדריה

    Translation: ru » Кадырия Translation: te » ఖాదరియా Translation: tr » Kadirilik Translation: ur » قادریہ


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    16/04/2014 - 02:38am    Wednesday 16th April 2014   This article contains content from Wikipedia and is released under GNU FDL